Top 10 National Parks in Nepal

Last updated on 2022-09-25
Top 10 National Parks in Nepal

Nepal is home to various landscapes, flora and fauna species, natural ecosystems, lush green tropical and subtropical forests, ranging from the Terai region to the high Himalayas. For the conservation and management of wildlife and biodiversity of the nation, the Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC) was established in 2037 BS. Nepal residents 12 National Parks, which are the most diverse in the world, offering a lifetime experience. Here, we have compiled the top ten national parks of Nepal ranked based on their coverage area.

*The ranking is done based on data published by DNPWC.

10. Khaptad National Park

Khaptad National Park
Image Source: Wikimedia

Khaptad National Park is the only mid-mountain national park in western Nepal symbolizing the uniqueness and importance of the ecosystem. It was established in 1984 in the Far-Western Region of Nepal with a vision to be a leading self-sustaining conservational representative that transforms Nepal into an outstanding ecotourism destination globally and is renowned for not only its diversified ecosystem but also with the spiritual environment. With its environmental and spiritual significance, the park holds a challenging yet rewarding experience unlike many other national parks in Nepal. The park is reported to have 266 bird species, a wide variety of butterfly species, and habitat of almost 20 different species of mammals.

  • Total Area (square km) : 225
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 645
  • Establishment Date : 1984 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 216

9. Shukla Phanta National Park

Shukla Phanta National Park
Image Source: awsassets.panda.org

ShuklaPhanta National Park began its operation as a hunting reserve in the initial phase in 1969. Later, it was declared as a Wildlife Reserve and in the current scenario, it is working as a National Park. In 2017, ShuklaPhanta National Park was announced as a National Park with a total of 24 mammal species, a total of 350 species of birds of which 180 are breeding species, 14 species of fish, 10 species of ectoparasites, and biting flies. Though the area of the park is small, it supports a wide range of biodiversity which holds the importance of national and global value.

  • Total Area (square km) : 305
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 556
  • Establishment Date : 1976 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 243.5

8. Banke National Park

Banke National Park
Image Source: Nepalaya Times

Banke National Park is the newest protected area of Nepal established in 2010 in Lumbini province with their prime concern to conserve major focus species such as the royal Bengal tiger, Asiatic wild elephant, and four-horned antelope. The park lies in Banke district and its buffer zone covers parts of Banke, Bardiya, Dang, and Salyan districts of Mid Western Development Region. The national park reflects the Government’s initiative and commitment to conserve biodiversity at the landscape level. It contains an array of eight eco-systems of Sal forest, deciduous Riverine forest, savannahs and grasslands, mixed hardwood forest, flood plain community, Bhabar, and foothills of Chure range. It is an important component of the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) providing additional habitat for tigers. It is an important component of the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) providing additional habitat for tigers. It is home to 124 plants, 34 mammals, more than 300 birds, 24 reptiles, 7 amphibians, and 58 fish species.

  • Total Area (square km) : 550
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 5547
  • Establishment Date : 2010 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 343

7. Parsa National Park

Parsa National Park
Image Source: Vivaan Adventure

Parsa National Park is one of the majestic conservation areas located in the south-central lowland of Nepal of provinces 2 and 3 in Parsa, Barsa, and Makwanpur districts. It was first established as Parsa Wildlife Reserve in 1984 and later the status of Wildlife Reserve was changed to National Park in 2017. The initial motive of establishing the wildlife park was to preserve Asian Wild Elephants and their remaining habitat of historical Char-Koshe-Jhadi spread over Terai from east to west of Nepal. The forest mainly is composed of tropical and subtropical species. The reserve is also famous for reptiles and different kinds of snakes including common and banded Karit, Python, and King Cobra.

  • Total Area (square km) : 627.39
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 530
  • Establishment Date : 1984 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 285.3

6. Chitwan National Park

Chitwan National Park
Image Source: Steppes Travel

Chitwan National Park is the country’s first national park established in 1973 which is popularly known for its unique ecosystems of international significance. With its rich natural area and diverse ecosystems including Churia hills, Ox-bow lakes, and the flood plains of the Rapti, Reu, and Narayani Rivers, the park was marked as a World Heritage Site in 1984. The park is bordered by the Rapti and Narayani River in the north, Parsa Wildlife Reserve in the east, and Madi settlements and India border in the south. Gharial Breeding Center and Elephant safari are a few of the activities that attract visitors to the national park.

  • Total Area (square km) : 952.63
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 680
  • Establishment Date : 1973 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 729.37

5. Bardiya National Park

Bardiya National Park
Image Source: Tourism News Live

Bardiya National Park is one of the most magnificent conservation areas in the Terai and accommodates endangered Royal Bengal Tiger and Nepal’s famous one-horned rhinoceros. It was established in 1976 and is located in the far western district of Bardiya, bordered to the west by Karnali River and to the North by the Churia Range. The park is home to 30 species of mammals, more than 250 species of birds, and several varieties of reptiles. Activities such as white-water rafting in the Karnali, and viewing the endangered species such as gharial and marsh mugger crocodiles, and Gangetic dolphin activities hold the presence of visitors in the area. It also residents 651 species of Butterflies offering the world’s 3.72 percent diverse family of butterflies.

  • Total Area (square km) : 968
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 310
  • Establishment Date : 1976 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 327

4. Sagarmatha National Park

Sagarmatha National Park
Image Source: Wallpaper cave

Sagarmatha National Park is an exceptional woodland in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal and is dominated by Mount Everest. It was established in 1976 and conserves the Everest Ecosystem along with its Endangered wildlife and rich Sherpa culture. With its magnificent natural phenomenon and unique culture, the park was marked on the World Heritage Site list in 1979. The Park is bordered by Makalu Barun National Park in the east, Rolwaling valley of Gaurishankar Conservation Area to its west, Qomolangma National Nature Preserve to the north, and Sagarmatha National Park Buffer Zone to the south. The Dudh Koshi valley of Sagarmatha National Park is regarded to be the home to the unique culture of the Sherpas and holds biological, socio-economic, and cultural significance. Rare and endangered animals such as snow leopards and red pandas are found in the park.

  • Total Area (square km) : 1148
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 130
  • Establishment Date : 1976 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 275

3. Makalu Barun National Park

Makalu Barun National Park
Image Source: tigerencounter.com

Makalu Barun National Park, previously a conservation area, is an innovative conservation model designed to collaborate the protected area management and community development. Their main motive is to encourage the local people to actively participate in protecting the forests and natural resources and conserve their own rich cultural heritage. It was established in 1992 and is well known for its tremendous diversity of plants, and animals. The national park contains 25 species of rhododendron, 47 types of orchids, and 56 rare plants which have comprised a remarkable range of alpine grasslands and endangered plant collection. The park also houses rare animals such as Musk deer, Himalayan Black Bear, Red Panda, Snow Leopard, Himalayan Tahr, and Barking Deer.

  • Total Area (square km) : 1500
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 133
  • Establishment Date : 1992 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 830

2. Langtang National Park

Langtang National Park
Image Source: Wikimedia Commons

Langtang National Park is the nearest national park to the capital of the country, Kathmandu. It was established in 1976 to conserve the diversity of flora and fauna. The park holds a great value rich in biodiversity and represents a meeting point between Indo-Malayan and Palearctic realms. The Park's rich vegetation is characterized by Sal forest in the southern section of the park which gradually takes over by hill forest consisting of Chirpine, Rhododendrons, and Nepalese alder. The temperate zone is covered mainly by oak forest fading to the mature forest of silver fir, hemlock, and larch in the lower subalpine zone. The park covers parts of the Nuwakot, Rasuwa, and Sindhupalchowk districts in the southern part of the Nepal-China border.

  • Total Area (square km) : 1710
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 360
  • Establishment Date : 1976 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 420

1. Shey-Phoksundo National Park

Shey-Phoksundo National Park
Image Source: Wikimedia

Shey-Phoksundo National Park is Nepal’s largest National Park covering an area of 3,555 km square. It was established in 1984 in the Trans-Himalayan region of Northwest Nepal and is preserving a unique Trans-Himalayan ecosystem with a diversity of flora and fauna. It provides a variousness of spectacular landscapes including Kanjiroba Himal, Phoksundo Lake, Suligad, and Jugdual Rivers. The national park contributes an extremely diverse set of flora and fauna with local accommodations available in Dunai, Sangta, Chhepka, and Ringmo. The convenient way to reach the park is through the airways from Nepalgunj to the Juphal airstrip in Dolpa followed by a half-day walk to the park entrance at Suligad.

  • Total Area (square km) : 3555
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 521
  • Establishment Date : 1984 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 1349

page view count (for last 7 days) : 5

10.

Khaptad National Park

9.

Shukla Phanta National Park

8.

Banke National Park

7.

Parsa National Park

6.

Chitwan National Park

5.

Bardiya National Park

4.

Sagarmatha National Park

3.

Makalu Barun National Park

2.

Langtang National Park

1.

Shey-Phoksundo National Park

10. Khaptad National Park

Khaptad National Park
Image Source: Wikimedia

Khaptad National Park is the only mid-mountain national park in western Nepal symbolizing the uniqueness and importance of the ecosystem. It was established in 1984 in the Far-Western Region of Nepal with a vision to be a leading self-sustaining conservational representative that transforms Nepal into an outstanding ecotourism destination globally and is renowned for not only its diversified ecosystem but also with the spiritual environment. With its environmental and spiritual significance, the park holds a challenging yet rewarding experience unlike many other national parks in Nepal. The park is reported to have 266 bird species, a wide variety of butterfly species, and habitat of almost 20 different species of mammals.

  • Total Area (square km) : 225
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 645
  • Establishment Date : 1984 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 216

9. Shukla Phanta National Park

Shukla Phanta National Park
Image Source: awsassets.panda.org

ShuklaPhanta National Park began its operation as a hunting reserve in the initial phase in 1969. Later, it was declared as a Wildlife Reserve and in the current scenario, it is working as a National Park. In 2017, ShuklaPhanta National Park was announced as a National Park with a total of 24 mammal species, a total of 350 species of birds of which 180 are breeding species, 14 species of fish, 10 species of ectoparasites, and biting flies. Though the area of the park is small, it supports a wide range of biodiversity which holds the importance of national and global value.

  • Total Area (square km) : 305
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 556
  • Establishment Date : 1976 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 243.5

8. Banke National Park

Banke National Park
Image Source: Nepalaya Times

Banke National Park is the newest protected area of Nepal established in 2010 in Lumbini province with their prime concern to conserve major focus species such as the royal Bengal tiger, Asiatic wild elephant, and four-horned antelope. The park lies in Banke district and its buffer zone covers parts of Banke, Bardiya, Dang, and Salyan districts of Mid Western Development Region. The national park reflects the Government’s initiative and commitment to conserve biodiversity at the landscape level. It contains an array of eight eco-systems of Sal forest, deciduous Riverine forest, savannahs and grasslands, mixed hardwood forest, flood plain community, Bhabar, and foothills of Chure range. It is an important component of the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) providing additional habitat for tigers. It is an important component of the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) providing additional habitat for tigers. It is home to 124 plants, 34 mammals, more than 300 birds, 24 reptiles, 7 amphibians, and 58 fish species.

  • Total Area (square km) : 550
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 5547
  • Establishment Date : 2010 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 343

7. Parsa National Park

Parsa National Park
Image Source: Vivaan Adventure

Parsa National Park is one of the majestic conservation areas located in the south-central lowland of Nepal of provinces 2 and 3 in Parsa, Barsa, and Makwanpur districts. It was first established as Parsa Wildlife Reserve in 1984 and later the status of Wildlife Reserve was changed to National Park in 2017. The initial motive of establishing the wildlife park was to preserve Asian Wild Elephants and their remaining habitat of historical Char-Koshe-Jhadi spread over Terai from east to west of Nepal. The forest mainly is composed of tropical and subtropical species. The reserve is also famous for reptiles and different kinds of snakes including common and banded Karit, Python, and King Cobra.

  • Total Area (square km) : 627.39
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 530
  • Establishment Date : 1984 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 285.3

6. Chitwan National Park

Chitwan National Park
Image Source: Steppes Travel

Chitwan National Park is the country’s first national park established in 1973 which is popularly known for its unique ecosystems of international significance. With its rich natural area and diverse ecosystems including Churia hills, Ox-bow lakes, and the flood plains of the Rapti, Reu, and Narayani Rivers, the park was marked as a World Heritage Site in 1984. The park is bordered by the Rapti and Narayani River in the north, Parsa Wildlife Reserve in the east, and Madi settlements and India border in the south. Gharial Breeding Center and Elephant safari are a few of the activities that attract visitors to the national park.

  • Total Area (square km) : 952.63
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 680
  • Establishment Date : 1973 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 729.37

5. Bardiya National Park

Bardiya National Park
Image Source: Tourism News Live

Bardiya National Park is one of the most magnificent conservation areas in the Terai and accommodates endangered Royal Bengal Tiger and Nepal’s famous one-horned rhinoceros. It was established in 1976 and is located in the far western district of Bardiya, bordered to the west by Karnali River and to the North by the Churia Range. The park is home to 30 species of mammals, more than 250 species of birds, and several varieties of reptiles. Activities such as white-water rafting in the Karnali, and viewing the endangered species such as gharial and marsh mugger crocodiles, and Gangetic dolphin activities hold the presence of visitors in the area. It also residents 651 species of Butterflies offering the world’s 3.72 percent diverse family of butterflies.

  • Total Area (square km) : 968
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 310
  • Establishment Date : 1976 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 327

4. Sagarmatha National Park

Sagarmatha National Park
Image Source: Wallpaper cave

Sagarmatha National Park is an exceptional woodland in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal and is dominated by Mount Everest. It was established in 1976 and conserves the Everest Ecosystem along with its Endangered wildlife and rich Sherpa culture. With its magnificent natural phenomenon and unique culture, the park was marked on the World Heritage Site list in 1979. The Park is bordered by Makalu Barun National Park in the east, Rolwaling valley of Gaurishankar Conservation Area to its west, Qomolangma National Nature Preserve to the north, and Sagarmatha National Park Buffer Zone to the south. The Dudh Koshi valley of Sagarmatha National Park is regarded to be the home to the unique culture of the Sherpas and holds biological, socio-economic, and cultural significance. Rare and endangered animals such as snow leopards and red pandas are found in the park.

  • Total Area (square km) : 1148
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 130
  • Establishment Date : 1976 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 275

3. Makalu Barun National Park

Makalu Barun National Park
Image Source: tigerencounter.com

Makalu Barun National Park, previously a conservation area, is an innovative conservation model designed to collaborate the protected area management and community development. Their main motive is to encourage the local people to actively participate in protecting the forests and natural resources and conserve their own rich cultural heritage. It was established in 1992 and is well known for its tremendous diversity of plants, and animals. The national park contains 25 species of rhododendron, 47 types of orchids, and 56 rare plants which have comprised a remarkable range of alpine grasslands and endangered plant collection. The park also houses rare animals such as Musk deer, Himalayan Black Bear, Red Panda, Snow Leopard, Himalayan Tahr, and Barking Deer.

  • Total Area (square km) : 1500
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 133
  • Establishment Date : 1992 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 830

2. Langtang National Park

Langtang National Park
Image Source: Wikimedia Commons

Langtang National Park is the nearest national park to the capital of the country, Kathmandu. It was established in 1976 to conserve the diversity of flora and fauna. The park holds a great value rich in biodiversity and represents a meeting point between Indo-Malayan and Palearctic realms. The Park's rich vegetation is characterized by Sal forest in the southern section of the park which gradually takes over by hill forest consisting of Chirpine, Rhododendrons, and Nepalese alder. The temperate zone is covered mainly by oak forest fading to the mature forest of silver fir, hemlock, and larch in the lower subalpine zone. The park covers parts of the Nuwakot, Rasuwa, and Sindhupalchowk districts in the southern part of the Nepal-China border.

  • Total Area (square km) : 1710
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 360
  • Establishment Date : 1976 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 420

1. Shey-Phoksundo National Park

Shey-Phoksundo National Park
Image Source: Wikimedia

Shey-Phoksundo National Park is Nepal’s largest National Park covering an area of 3,555 km square. It was established in 1984 in the Trans-Himalayan region of Northwest Nepal and is preserving a unique Trans-Himalayan ecosystem with a diversity of flora and fauna. It provides a variousness of spectacular landscapes including Kanjiroba Himal, Phoksundo Lake, Suligad, and Jugdual Rivers. The national park contributes an extremely diverse set of flora and fauna with local accommodations available in Dunai, Sangta, Chhepka, and Ringmo. The convenient way to reach the park is through the airways from Nepalgunj to the Juphal airstrip in Dolpa followed by a half-day walk to the park entrance at Suligad.

  • Total Area (square km) : 3555
  • Total Flora and Fauna : More than 521
  • Establishment Date : 1984 A.D.
  • Buffer Zone (square km) : 1349

10.

Khaptad National Park

9.

Shukla Phanta National Park

8.

Banke National Park

7.

Parsa National Park

6.

Chitwan National Park

5.

Bardiya National Park

4.

Sagarmatha National Park

3.

Makalu Barun National Park

2.

Langtang National Park

1.

Shey-Phoksundo National Park